My answer to a question on Quora: Why is school 8 hours long?
It was in primordial era, but, in my country, at my time at junior school (7 to 11 years old), school day was 4 lessons of 45 minutes long, with two breaks of 10 minutes and one break of 25 minutes in between, from 8:30 to 12:30 in the morning. There was some homework, but not very taxing. A plenty of time was free for whatever children wished to occupy themselves with. Parents were at work until 17:00.
A short school day is actually a physiological norm. Why in the UK, say, school day is abnormally long? Because it is an offence to leave children alone; the law is vague — see The law on leaving your child on their own, but it applies with unnecessary, in my opinion, rigour. Schools are forced to act as storage rooms for children while parents are at work.
Of course, in old times there were risks involved; legs and arms were broken while skiing (unsupervised), or playing ice hockey (also unsupervised), etc., but all that was seen as unavoidable and normal risks; there were no modern culture of over-protection which would, of course, cut accidents — but at expense of loss of child’s precious independence. Analysing now my and my friends’ behaviour of that time, I see that we were quite risk aware and knew how to avoid danger — it was a normal part of growing up.